The Concepts and Types of Plant Growth Hormones and their role in Field Crop Production
- plant hormone
Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal For Research In Agricultural And Food Science (ISSN: 2208-2719)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
This paper is intended to revise those findings in the area of plant growth hormones; concepts, type and their role in field crop production for the better understanding of previous and current research findings. The plant hormones are defined as organic compounds which regulate plant physiological process regardless of whether these compounds are naturally occurring and/or synthetic; stimulating and/or inhibitory; local activators or substances which act at a distance from the place where they are formed. Hormones are chemical signals that are produced in one part of the body /tissue and transported to other parts of the plant bind to a specific receptor and trigger responses in the target cell and tissue. Plant development was thought to be regulated by only five types of hormones; auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, and ethylene. However, there is no compelling evidence that has a wide range of morphological effects on plant development. Current study indicate that plant growth hormones has play a significant role in the growth, physiological, biochemical, quality and yield characteristics of pulse crops which include length, fresh and dry weight of root, leaf number, leaf area, leaf area index (LAI), net assimilation rate (NAR), chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity (NR), carbonic anhydrase activity (CA), nutrient accumulation, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents, protein and carbohydrate content and various other growth, yield and quality parameters.. So the present review indicates that the process of growth and development, in addition to the yield and quality of plants is highly affected by the plant growth hormones and plant growth regulators. Finally, the objective of this term paper is to point out those research results in the area of plant growth hormones; their major classifications and role in field crop production through the review of different papers in this area.
- Agegnehu, Getachew; Taye, G. (2004). Effect of Plant Hormones on the Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Maize in acidic Soils of the Humid Tropics.SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science, 27(1), 17–24. Retrieved from https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sinet/article/view/18217
- Bahram B (2009) Amelioration of chilling stress by paclobutrazol in watermelon seedlings. Sci Hortic-Amsterdam 121:144–148
- Ballaré, C.L., Scopel, A.L., and Sánchez, R.A. 1990. Far-red radiation reflected from adjacent leaves: an early signal of competition in plant canopies. Science, 247(4940): 329–332. doi:10.1126/science.247.4940.329. PMID: 17735851
- Bora RK and Sarma CM (2006) Effect of gibberellic acid and cycocel on growth, yield and protein content of pea. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 5: 324-330.
- Cassán, F., Vanderleyden, J., & Spaepen, S. (2014). Physiological and Agronomical Aspects of Phytohormone Production by Model Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) Belonging to the Genus Azospirillum. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 33(2), 440–459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-013-9362-4
- Chauhan JS, Tomar YK, Singh IK, Ali S and Debarati (2009b) Effects of growth hormones on seed germination and seedling growth of black gram and horse gram. Journal of American Science 5: 79-84.
- Copur O, Demirel U and Karakus M (2010) Effects of several plant growth regulators on the yield and fiber quality of cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj 38: 104-110.
- Daphne J, Osborne Michael, McManus T (2005). Hormones signals and target cells in plant development. Publish, Cambridge University Press. p. 158.
- Davies, P. (2014). A1. The Plant Hormones : Their Nature, (January 2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-2686-7
- Dong MH, Liu XB, Lu CQ, Zhao BH, Yang JC (2009) Effects of exogenous ABA and on the main quality characteristics of grains at different positions of panicle in rice. Sci Agric Sin 35(5):899–906 (in Chinese with English abstract)
- Dong CF, Gu HR, Ding CL, Xu NX, Liu NQ, Qu H, Shen YX (2012) Effects of the gibberellic acid application after anthesis on the feeding value of double-purpose rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw at harvest. Journal of Field Crops Res 131:75–80
- Else MA, Coupland D, Dutton L, Jackson MB (2001). Decreased root hydraulic conductivity reduces leaf water potential, initiates stomatal closure and slows leaf expansion in flooded plants of castor oil (Ricinus communis) despite diminished delivery of ABA from the roots to shoots in xylem sap. Blackwell Publishing, Physiol. Plantar. 111(1): 46-54(9)
- Emongor V (2007) Gibberellic acid (GA3) influence on vegetative growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L). Journal of Agron Sci 6:509–517
- Gana, A. S. (2010). The role of synthetic growth hormones in crop multiplication and improvement. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(51), pp. 10330-10334,
- Gaspar, T., Kevers, C., Faivre-Rampant, O., Crèvecoeur, M., Penel, C., Greppin, H., & Dommes, J. (2003). Changing concepts in plant hormone action. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant, 39(2), 85–106. https://doi.org/10.1079/IVP2002393
- Gopi C, Vatsala TM (2006). In vitro studies on the effect of plant growth regulators on callus and suspension culture biomass yield from Gymnema Sylvestre. R. Br. African. Journal of Biotechnology. 5(12): 1215-1219.
- Gulluoglu L (2004) Determination of usage of plant growth regulators in soybean (Glycine max Merr) farming under Harran plain conditions. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture 8: 17-23.
- Hall MA, Moshkov IE, Novikova GV, Mur LAJ, Smith AR (2001) Ethylene signal perception and transduction: multiple paradigms? Biol Rev 76:103–128
- H. Ö pick & S. Rolfe 2005. The Physiology of Flowering Plants. Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York
- Khatun, S., Roy, T. S., Haque, N., & Alamgir, B. (2016). Role Of Plant Growth Regulators On Growth And Yield Of Soybean At Different Stages Of Application, (October). https://doi.org/10.15192/PSCP.SA.2016.15.3.380386
- Kurepin, L.V., Yip, W.-K., Fan, R., Yeung, E.C., and Reid, D.M. 2010a. The roles and interactions of ethylene with gibberellins in the far-red enriched light-mediated growth of Solanum lycopersicum seedlings. Plant Growth Regulator. 61(3): 215–222. Doi: 10.1007/ s10725-010-9465-x
- Naeem M, Bhatti I, Ahmad RH and Ashraf MY (2004) Effect of some growth hormones (GA3, IAA, and Kinetin) on the morphology and early or delayed initiation of the bud of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik). Pakistan Journal of Botany 36: 801-809.
- Pan, S., Rasul, F., Li, W., Tian, H., Mo, Z., Duan, M., & Tang, X. (2013). Roles of plant growth regulators on yield, grain qualities and antioxidant enzyme activities in super hybrid rice ( Oryza sativa L .), 1–10.
- Parthier B (2004). Phytohormones and chloroplast development. Biochemistry Physiology plants flanz 174: 173-214
- Plant Hormones and their Role in Plant Growth and Development. (2012). Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books
- Prat L, Batti C and Fichet T (2008). Effect of plant growth regulators on floral differentiation and seed production in jojoba (Simmondsia Chinensis (Link) Schneider). Industrial Crops and Products 27: 44-49.
- Rastogi, A., Siddiqui, A., Mishra, B. K., Srivastava, M., Pandey, R., Misra, P., … Shukla, S. (2013). Effect of auxin and gibberellic acid on growth and yield components of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, 13(2), 136–143. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-70332013000200006
- Richards DE, King KE, Ali AT, Harberd NP (2001) how gibberellins regulate plant growth and development: a molecular genetic analysis of gibberellins signaling. Plant Mol Biol 52:67–88
- Sing SP, Paleg LG (1984) Low temperature-induced GA3 sensitivity of wheat. I. Characterization of the low-temperature effect on isolated aleurone of Kite. Plant Physiol 76: 139-142
- Smith, H. 2000. Phytochromes and light signal perception by plants —an emerging synthesis. Nature, 407(6804): 585–591. doi:10. 1038/35036500. PMID:11034200
- Soad MMI, Lobna, Taha S and Farahat MM (2010). Vegetative growth and chemical constituents of croton plants as affected by foliar application of benzyl adenine and gibberellic acid. Journal of American Science 6: 126-130.
- Sonia, Md, B A. (2016). Role Of Plant Growth Regulators On Growth And Yield Of Soybean At Different Stages Of Application Scientia Agricultural Sci. Agri. www.pscipub.com/SA E-ISSN: 2310-953X / P-ISSN: DOI 10.15192/PSCP.SA.2016.15.3.3803862311-0228
- Srivastava, L. M. (2002 ). Gibberellic acid induced elongation of lettuce hypocotyls and its inhibition by colchicine. Canadian Journal of Botany. 52, 259-264.
- Still JR, Pill WG (2004) Growth and stress tolerance of tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in response to seed treatment with paclobutrazol. Journal of Hortic Sci Biotech l79:197–203
- Stoddart JL, Lloyd EJ (1986) Modification by gibberellin of the growth-temperature relationship in mutant and normal genotypes of several bowls of cereal. Planta 167: 364-368 Singh SP, Paleg LG (1984) Low-temperature induction of hormonal,
- Taiz Lincoln and Zeige Eduardo. (2003). Plant Physiology’s Best Paper Award. Plant Physiology (Vol. 1). doi:10.1093/nq/s9-IV.104.529a
- The role of synthetic growth hormones in crop multiplication and improvement. (2010), 10(51), 10330–10334. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB10.301
- Vwioko ED and Longe MU (2009) Auxin and gibberellin effects on growth and fruit size in Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standley). Bioscience Research Communications 21: 263-2
- Wilkinson, S., Kudoyarova, G. R., Veselov, D. S., Arkhipova, T. N., & Davies, W. J. (2012). Plant hormone interactions: Innovative targets for crop breeding and management. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63(9), 3499–3509. doi:10.1093/jxb/ers148
- Yuan Y, Qian HM, Wang Y, Shi YM, Tang DQ (2012) Hormonal regulation of Freesia cut flowers and FhACS1. Journal Sci Hortic-Amsterdam 143:75–81.
- Zhang WX, Peng CR, Sun G, Zhang FQ, Hu SX (2007) Effect of different external phytohormones on leaves senescence in the late growth period of late-season rice. Acta Agric Jiangxi 19(2):11–13 (in Chinese with English abstract