Vol 5 No 11 (2019): International Journal For Research In Health Sciences And Nursing (ISSN: 2208-2670)

Workplace psychological violence among junior physicians employed in an Egyptian University Hospital

Basem Abdel-Aziz
Alexandria University
Published November 8, 2019
  • Workplace Psychological Violence,
  • Factor Analysis,
  • Structural Equation Modeling,
  • Psychometric Properties,
  • Junior Physicians
How to Cite
Abdel-Aziz, B. (2019). Workplace psychological violence among junior physicians employed in an Egyptian University Hospital. International Journal For Research In Health Sciences And Nursing (ISSN: 2208-2670), 5(11), 01-47. Retrieved from https://gnpublication.org/index.php/hsn/article/view/1111


Workplace psychological violence (WPPV) is an organizational behavior problem. Study objectives were to determine the structure of WPPV, assess its prevalence, and identify high-risk categories among junior physicians in surgical and medical departments in an Egyptian university hospital. A self-administered questionnaire incorporating 45-item Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror was used as an initial item pool to collect data. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify a two-factor measurement model and confirmatory factor analysis – via structural equation modeling- was applied to assess its construct validity.  Factorial validity was established thru global and local fit diagnostics. Convergent validity was demonstrated via adequate subscales alpha coefficients, composite reliabilities, variances extracted, and weight and significance of item loadings. Discriminant validity was verified by moderate interfactor correlations and subscales composite reliabilities were greater than average variance extracted.  The validated model was used to determine the prevalence of WPPV, which proved to be (36.7 %). WPPV was more prevalent in surgical than medical departments. Females were less exposed to WPPV than males. Physicians with “very good” merit at M.B.Ch.B. were more exposed to WPPV than those with an “excellent” merit. Interventions and preventions in the form of policy, regulations, guidelines, and educational programs were recommended.  


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Abbas, M. A., Fiala, L. A., Abdel Rahman,A.,& Fahim,A. E.(2010). Epidemiology of workplace
  2. violence against nursing staff in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Public
  3. Health Association, 85, 29–43.
  4. Abu-Lughod, L. ed. (1998). Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East.
  5. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.
  6. Agervold, M. (2007). Bullying at work: a discussion of definitions and prevalence, based on an
  7. empirical study. Scand J Psychol, 48, 161-172. DOI: 10.1111/j. 1467-9450. 2007.00585.x
  8. Aksu, T., & Akyol, T. (2011). The examination of states to mobbing exposure of intensive care
  9. nurses. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Nursing Sciences, 3, 29-37.
  10. Amad, S. (2015). Self-Esteem and Aggression: The Relationships between Explicit-Implicit SelfEsteem, Narcissism, and Reactive-Proactive Aggression. PHD Thesis. School of Psychology,
  11. Cardiff University.
  12. Anderson, C. & Berdahl, J. (2002). The experience of power: examining the effects of power on
  13. approach and inhibition tendencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1362-
  14. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.83.6.1362
  15. Andersson, L., & Pearson, C. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace.
  16. Academy of Management Review, 24, 452-471. DOI: 10.5465/AMR.1999.2202131
  17. Anti-Mobbing. (2016). Anti-Mobbing Help for Scientists. Available from:-
  18. http://www.antimobbing.eu/lipt.html.
  19. Aquino, K., & Bradfield, M. (2000). Perceived victimization in the workplace: the role of situational
  20. factors and victim characteristics. Organization Science, 11, 525-537.
  21. DOI:10.1287/orsc.11.5.525.15205
  22. Babin, B. J., Svensson, G. (2012). Structural equation modeling in social science research: Issues of
  23. validity and reliability in the research process. European Business Review, 24, 320-330,
  24. https://doi.org/10.1108/09555341211242132
  25. Beauducel, A. (2001). Problems with parallel analysis in data sets with oblique simple structure.
  26. Methods of Psychological Research, 6 (2), 141-157.
  27. Berthelsen, M., Skogstad, A., Lau, B., & Einarsen, S. (2011). Do they stay or do they go?,
  28. International Journal of Manpower, 32, 178 – 193. DOI:10.1108/01437721111130198
  29. Björkqvist, K., Österman, K., & Hjelt-Back, M. (1994). Aggression among university
  30. employees. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 173–184. DOI: 10.1002/1098-
  31. (1994)20:3<173::AID-AB2480200304>3.0.CO;2-D
  32. Brodsky, C.M. (1976). The harassed worker. Toronto (Canada): Lexington Books.
  33. Byrne, B.M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications, and
  34. programming. Mahwah (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
  35. Carnero, M.A., Martinez, B., Mangas, R.S. (2010). Mobbing and its determinants: the case of Spain.
  36. Appl Econ, 42,3777e87.
  37. Chiril, T., & Constantin, T. (2013). Understanding workplace bullying phenomenon through its
  38. concepts: A literature review. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 1175 – 1179. DOI:
  39. 1177/2158244016629394
  40. Clarke, R.V. (1997). Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies. (2nd edition). Guilderland,
  41. New York: Harrow and Heston Publishers.
  42. Cortina, L., & Magley, V. (2003). Raising voice, risking retaliation: Events following interpersonal
  43. mistreatment in the workplace. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8, 247-265.
  44. DOI:10.1037/1076-8998.8.4.247
  45. Cortina, L. M., Magley, V. J., Williams, J. H., & Langhout, R. D. (2001). Incivility in the workplace:
  46. incidence and impact. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 64-80. DOI:
  47. 1037/1076-8998.6.1.64
  48. Crawshaw, L. (2009). Workplace Bullying? Mobbing? Harassment? Distraction by a thousand
  49. definitions. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 61, 263–267. DOI:
  50. 1037/a0016590
  51. Daugherty, S., Baldwin, D., & Rowley, B. (1998). Learning, satisfaction, and mistreatment during
  52. medical internship. JAMA, 279 (15), 1194-1199. DOI: 10.1001/jama.279.15.1194
  53. de Carvalho, J., & Chima, F.O. (2014). Applications of Structural Equation Modeling in Social
  54. Sciences Research. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 4, 6-11. DOI:
  55. 1146/annurev.psych.51.1.201
  56. de Winter, J. C. F, Dodou, D., & Wieringa, P. A. (2009). Exploratory factor analysis with small
  57. sample sizes. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 44, 147–181. DOI:
  58. 1080/00273170902794206
  59. di Martino, V. (2003). Workplace violence in the health sector: Relationship between work stress and
  60. workplace violence in the health sector. ILO/ICN/WHO/PSI. Geneva.
  61. Di Martino, V., Hoel, H. and Cooper, C.L. (2003), Preventing Violence and Harassment in the
  62. Workplace, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions,
  63. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxemburg.
  64. Duffy, M., Ganster, D., & Pagon, M. (2002). Social undermining in the workplace. Academy of
  65. Management Journal, 45, 331-351. DOI: 10.2307/3069350
  66. Einarsen, S. (1996). Bullying and harassment at work: epidemiological and psychosocial aspects.
  67. PhD thesis, University of Bergen, Norway.
  68. Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., & Notelaers, G. (2009). Measuring exposure to bullying and harassment at
  69. work: Validity, factor structure and psychometric properties of the Negative Acts QuestionnaireRevised. Work & Stress, 23, 24-44. DOI:10.1080/02678370902815673
  70. Einarsen, S., & Rakens, B. I. (1997). Harassment in the workplace and the victimization of men. Viol
  71. Victims, 12, 247-263. DOI: 10.1891/0886-6708.12.3.247
  72. Einarsen, S., & Skogstad, A. (1996). Bullying at work: Epidemiological findings in public and
  73. private organizations. Eur J Work Organ Psychol, 5, 185-201.
  74. DOI:10.1080/13594329608414854
  75. El-Houfey, A. A., Abo El-Maged, S.H., Elserogy, Y.M., & El Ansari, W. (2015). Workplace
  76. Bullying Against Medical and Nursing Team Working At Emergency Departments in Assiut
  77. University Hospital. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science, 4, 1-9. DOI: 10.9790/1959-
  78. Eriksen, W. and Einarsen, S. (2004). Gender minority as a risk factor of exposure to bullying at
  79. work. The case of male assistant nurses. European Journal of Work and Organizational
  80. Psychology, 13 , 473-92. DOI: 10.1080/13594320444000173
  81. Escartín, J., Rodríguez-Carballeira, Á., Gómez-Benito, J., & Zapf, D. (2010). Development and
  82. validation of the workplace bullying scale EAPA-T. International Journal of Clinical and Health
  83. Psychology, 10, 519-539.
  84. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working conditions. (2003). Violence,
  85. bullying and harassment in the workplace. Available from:- http://www.eurofound.europa.eu.
  86. Ferrel, J. (1999). Cultural criminology. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 395-418. DOI:
  87. 1146/annurev.soc.25.1.395
  88. Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Second edition. Sage.
  89. Giorgi, G. (2012). Workplace bullying in academia creates a negative work environment: an Italian
  90. study. Employees Rights and Responsibilities Journal, 24, 261-275, DOI: 10.1007/s10672-012-
  91. -7
  92. Glomb, T. (2002). Workplace anger and aggression: Informing conceptual models with data from
  93. specific encounters. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 20–36.
  94. Godin, I. (2004). Bullying, worker’s health, and labor instability. Journal of Epidemiology &
  95. Community Health, 58, 258–259. DOI:10.1136/jech.2003.009456
  96. González de Revira, J. (2005). El mobbing en la organizazaciones. Barcelona: Kairos.
  97. Guadagnoli, E. , & Velicer, W. (1988). Relation of sample size to the stability of component patterns.
  98. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 265-275. DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.103.2.265.
  99. Gupta, R., Bakhshi, A., Einarsen, S. (2017).Investigating Workplace Bullying in India: Psychometric
  100. Properties, Validity, and Cutoff Scores of Negative Acts Questionnaire–Revised. SAGE Open,
  101. -12. DOI:10.1177/2158244017715674
  102. Hair, J., Black, B., Babin, B., Anderson, R., & Tatham, R. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th
  103. ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  104. Hayward, K.G., Young, J. (2004). Cultural Criminology: Some Notes on the Script. Theoretical
  105. Criminology, 8, 259-273. DOI: 10.1177/1362480604044608
  106. Hoel, H., & Cooper, C. (2000). Destructive conflict and bullying at work. Report produced by
  107. the Manchester School of Management, University of Manchester Institute of Science and
  108. Technology, Manchester.
  109. Hutchinson, M., Vickers, M., Jackson, D., & Wilkes L. (2006). Workplace bullying in nursing:
  110. Towards a more critical organisational perspective. Nursing Inquiry, 13, 118–126.
  111. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1800.2006.00314.x.
  112. Jankowiak, B., Kowalczuk, J., Krajewska-Kulak, E., Sierakowska, M., Lewko, J., & Klimaszewska,
  113. K. (2007). Exposure the doctors to aggression in the workplace. Adv Med Sci, 52,89-92.
  114. Jeniffer, D., Cowie, H., & Ananiadou, K. (2003). Perceptions and experience of workplace bullying
  115. in five different working populations. Aggressive Behav, 29,489-496. DOI:10.1002/ab.10055
  116. Josipovic-Jelic, Z., Stoini, E., & Celic-Bunikic, S. (2005). The effect of mobbing on medical staff
  117. performance. Acta Clin Croat,44,347-352.
  118. Kaufer, S., Mattman, J. (2012). Workplace violence: An employer's guide. Workplace Violence
  119. Research Institute. Available from:-
  120. http://www.noworkviolence.com/articles/employers_guide.html.
  121. Keim, J., & McDermott, J.C. (2010). Mobbing: Workplace violence in the academy. The Educational
  122. Forum, 74,167-173. DOI:10.1080/00131721003608505
  123. Kenny, D. A. (2015). Measuring Model Fit. Available at: http://davidakenny.net/cm/fit.htm.
  124. Keltner, D., Gruenfeld, D. and Anderson, C. (2003). Power, approach, and inhibition.
  125. Psychological Review, 110, 265-84. DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.110.2.265
  126. Kivimäki, M., Elovainio, M., & Vahtera, J. (2000). Workplace bullying and sickness absence in
  127. hospital staff. Occup Environ Med, 57, 656-660. DOI: 10.1136/oem.57.10.656
  128. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. 2nd ed. New York:
  129. Guilford Press.
  130. Kline, R.B. (2011). Principles and practice of Structural Equation Modeling. 3rd ed. New York,
  131. London: The Guilford Press.
  132. Kline, R.B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. 4th ed. New York, NY:
  133. The Guilford Press; 2016.
  134. Korukcu, Ö., Bulut, O., Tuzcu, A., Shahin, Z., & Türkmen, H. (2014). An adaptation of Leymann
  135. Inventory of Psychological Terror to health sciences programs in Turkey. Anadolu Psikiyatri
  136. Dergisi-Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 15, 335-343. DOI: 10.5455/apd.42654
  137. Lee, J. (2012). The effects of leadership behavior on workplace harassment, employee outcomes, and
  138. organizational effectiveness in small businesses. A Dissertation submitted to The Faculty of
  139. School of Business of The George Washington University in partial fulfillment of the
  140. requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
  141. Levy, B.S. & Sidel, V.W. (eds) (1997). War and Public Health. Oxford University Press in
  142. cooperation with American Public Health Association, New York, Oxford.
  143. Leymann, H. (1990). Mobbing and psychological terror at the workplace. Violence and
  144. Victims,5,119-126. DOI:10.5455/apd.42654
  145. Leymann, H. (1992). Manligt och kvinnligt vid vuxenmobbning. En rikstáckande undersökning med
  146. 438 intervjuer. Gender aspects of adult bullying: a nation-wide study based on 2,438
  147. interviews. Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Stockholm.
  148. Leymann, H. (1996). The content and development of mobbing at work. European Journal of Work
  149. and Organizational Psychology, 10,165-184. DOI:10.1080/13594329608414853
  150. Leymann, H., & Gustafsson, A. (1996). Mobbing at work and the development of
  151. post-traumatic stress disorder. European Journal of Work and organizational Psychology, 5, 251-
  152. DOI: 10.1080/13594329608414858
  153. Lindroth, S., & Leymann, H. (1993). Vuxenmobbning mot en minoritetsgrupp män inom
  154. barnomsorgen: om mäns jämställdhet i ett kvinnodominerat yrke (“Bullying of a male minority
  155. group within child care: on men’s equality in a female-dominated occupation”). Swedish
  156. National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Stockholm.
  157. Lix, L. (2007). Introduction to Structural Equation Modeling. Notes for one-day workshop for
  158. Faculty of Nursing, Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, University of Manitoba.
  159. MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Zhang, S., & Hong, S. (1999). Sample size in factor
  160. analysis. Psychological Methods, 4, 84–89. DOI: 10.1037/1082-989X.4.1.84
  161. McKay, R., Arnold, D.H., Fratzl, J., & Thomas R. (2008). Workplace bullying in academia: A
  162. Canadian study. Employ Respons Rights J, 20, 77-100. DOI: 10.1007/s10672-008-9073-3
  163. Moreno, M.P., Beltrán, C.A., Tsuno, K., Inoue, A., & Kawakami, N. (2013). Assessing psychological
  164. violence and harassment at work: Reliability and validity of the Japanese Version of the
  165. Inventory of Violence and Psychological Harassment (IVAPT) Comparing NAQ-R and LIPT. J
  166. Occup Health, 55,108–119. DOI: 10.1539/joh.L10036
  167. Moreno-Jiménez, B., Rodrıguez, A., Salin, D., & Morante Benadero, M. (2008). Workplace bullying
  168. in southern Europe: prevalence, forms and risk groups in a Spanish sample. International
  169. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 13, 95-109.
  170. Musselman, L., MacRae, H., Reznick, R., & Lingard, L. (2005). You learn better under the gun:
  171. intimidation and harassment in surgical education. Med. Educ., 39, 926-934.
  172. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02247.x
  173. Myers, M. (1996). Abuse of residents: it's time to take action. CMAJ, 154, 1705-1708.
  174. Neuman, J., & Baron, R. (2003). Social antecedents of bullying: A social interactionist perspective.
  175. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (eds), Bullying and emotional abuse in the
  176. workplace: International perspectives in research and practice. London: Taylor & Francis, pp.
  177. –202.
  178. Nielsen, M.B., Skogstad, A., Matthiesen, S.B., Glasø, L., Aasland, M.S, & Notelaers, G. (2009).
  179. Prevalence of workplace bullying in Norway: comparison across time and estimation method.
  180. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18, 81-101.
  181. doi.org/10.1080/13594320801969707
  182. Norusis, M . (2000). SPSS10.0: Guide to Data Analysis, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  183. O’ Brien, M. (2005). What is Cultural About Cultural Criminology? The British Journal of
  184. Criminology, 45, 599–612. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azi045
  185. O’Connell, P., Calvert, E. and Watson, D. (2007). Bullying in the Workplace: Survey Reports,
  186. Report to the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment, Economic and Social Research
  187. Institute, Dublin.
  188. Notelaers, G., Vermunt, J.K., Baillien, E., Einarsen, S. and DeWitte, H. (2011). Exploring risk
  189. groups and risk factors for workplace bullying. Industrial Health, 49, 73-88.
  190. O’Higgins, J., & Kiernan N. (2015). Bullying in the workplace: an analysis of cases at the
  191. employment appeals tribunal under the unfair dismissals acts (1977-2007)”. ABC, National AntiBullying Research and Resource Centre, Dublin City University, Dublin. Available from:
  192. www4.dcu.ie/sites/default/files/institute_of_education/pdfs/bullying-workplace.pdf.
  193. Patrick, R., Susan, K., Rocky, J., & Tommy F. (2017). A human resource management perspective of
  194. workplace bullying. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 9, 116-127.
  195. DOI:10.1108/JACPR-11-2016-0262
  196. Quine, L. (1999). Workplace bullying in NHS community trust: staff questionnaire survey. BMJ1,
  197. , 228–232. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.318.7178.228.
  198. Quine, L. (2002). Workplace bullying in junior doctors: Questionnaire survey. BMJ, 324, 878-879.
  199. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.324.7342.878
  200. Raskauskas, J. (2006). Bullying in academia: An examination of workplace bullying in New Zealand
  201. universities. Paper presented at the American Education Research Association Conference, San
  202. Francisco, CA.
  203. Ritzman, M. (2016). A phenomenon we can’t ignore: performance improvement interventions to
  204. address workplace bullying. Performance Improvement, 55, 14-22. DOI:10.1002/pfi.21545
  205. Rodkin, P., Espelage, D., & Hanish, L. (2015). A relational framework for understanding bullying:
  206. developmental antecedents and outcomes. American Psychologist, 70, 311-21. DOI:
  207. 1037/a0038658.
  208. Rodríguez-Carballeira, A., Escartín, S., Visauta, V., Porrúa, C, & Martín-Peña, J. (2010).
  209. Categorization and hierarchy of workplace bullying strategies: a Delphi survey. Spanish Journal
  210. of Psychology, 13, 297-308. DOI:10.1017/S1138741600003875
  211. Rogelberg, S.G. (Ed.). (2007). The Encyclopedia of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
  212. SAGE Publications, (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi.
  213. Rosenberg, M. (ed.) (1985). Violence as a Public Health Problem: Background Papers for the
  214. Surgeon General's Workshop on Violence and Public Health. Leesburg, VA.
  215. Rosenberg, M. & Fenley, M. (eds) (1991). Violence in America: A Public Health Approach. New
  216. York: Oxford University Press.
  217. Rutherford, A., Zwi, A., Grove, N., & Butchart, A. (2007). Violence: a priority for public health?
  218. (part 2). J Epidemiol Community Health, 61, 764–770. DOI: 10.1136/jech.2006.049072
  219. Samir, N. M., R. Moustafa, R. E.,& AbouSaif, H. (2012). Nurses’ attitudes and reactions to
  220. workplace violence in obstetrics and gynaecology departments in Cairo hospitals. Eastern
  221. Mediterranean Health Journal, 18(3), 198-204.
  222. Salin, D. (2003). Ways of Explaining Workplace Bullying: A Review of Enabling, Motivating, and
  223. Precipitating Structures and Processes in the Work Environment. Human Relations, 56, 1213-
  224. DOI:10.1177/00187267035610003
  225. Salin, D. (2008). The prevention of workplace bullying as a question of human resource
  226. management: Measures adopted and underlying organizational factors. Scand J Manag, 24 ,221-
  227. DOI:10.1016/j.scaman.2008.04.004
  228. Salin, D., & Hoel, H. (2013). Workplace bullying as a gendered phenomenon. Journal of Managerial
  229. Psychology, 28, 235 – 251. DOI 10.1108/02683941311321187
  230. Sapnas, K.G., Zeller, R.A. (2002). Minimizing sample size when using exploratory factor
  231. analysis for measurement. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 10,135-53. DOI:
  232. 1891/jnum.
  233. Satcher, D. (1995). Violence as a public health issue. Bulletin of The New York Academy of
  234. Medicin,72, 46-56.
  235. Shahin, B., Cetin, M., Cimen, M., Yildiran, N. (2012). Assessment of Turkish junior male
  236. physicians’ exposure to mobbing behavior. Croat Med J, 53, 357-366. DOI:
  237. 3325/cmj.2012.53.357
  238. Snyder, L., Chen, P., Grubb, P., Roberts, R., Sauter, S., & Swanson, N. (2015). Workplace
  239. aggression and violence against individuals and organizations: causes, consequences, and
  240. interventions. Exploring Interpersonal Dynamics, 4, 1-65. DOI:10.1016/S1479-3555(04)04001-6.
  241. Tabachnick, B., & Fidell, L. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Fifth Edition. Pearson Education
  242. Inc.
  243. Taspinar, B. , Taspinar, F., Guclu, S., Nalbant, A. , Uslu, A., & Inal, S. (2013). Investigation of the
  244. association between mobbing and musculoskeletal discomfort in academicians. Japanese
  245. Psychological Research, 55, 400–408. DOI:10.1111/jpr.12030
  246. TrujilloFlores, M.M., Tovar, L.A.R., & Vilchis, F.L. (2014). Mobbing: A theoretical model
  247. quantifying factors affecting the role of women executives in the institutions of public education
  248. in Mexico. Contaduría y Administración, 59, 195-228. DOI: 10.1016/S0186-1042(14)71249-5.
  249. Twale, D., & Luca, B. (2008). Faculty incivility: The rise of the academic bully culture and what to
  250. do about it. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  251. Ullman, J. (2006). Structural equation modeling: Reviewing the basics and moving forward. Journal
  252. of Personality Assessment, 87, 35–50. DOI:10.1207/s15327752jpa8701_03
  253. United States Office of Personnel Management- Office of Workforce Relations. (1998). Dealing with
  254. workplace violence: A guide for agency planners. United States.
  255. Van Dick, L, Wagner, M. (2004). Abuse at work drains people, money and medical work-place
  256. not immune. Journal of American Medical Association, (267), 1439-1440.
  257. Westhues, K. (2002). At the mercy of the mob: A summary of research on workplace mobbing.
  258. Canada’s Occupational Health and Safety Magazine, 8, 30-36.
  259. Wild, J. , Ferguson, H., McDermott, F. , & Hornby, S. (2015). Undermining and bullying in surgical
  260. training: A review and recommendations by the Association of Surgeons in Training.
  261. International Journal of Surgery, 23, S5-S9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2015.09.017
  262. Workplace Bullying Institute (WBI). (2012). Results of the 2010 and 2007 WBI U.S. Workplace
  263. Bullying Survey. Available from: - http://www.workplacebullying.org/wbiresearch/2010-wbinational-survey.
  264. Work Safe Alberta. (2010). Workplace Health and Safety Bulletin: Preventing violence and
  265. harassment at the workplace. Government of Alberta, Canada.
  266. Work Safe New Zealand. (2014). Best practice guidelines: Preventing and responding to workplace
  267. bullying. New Zealand Government, New Zealand.
  268. WHO. (1996). Forty-Ninth World Health Assembly Geneva, 20-25 MAY 1996 WHA49.25
  269. Prevention of violence: a public health priority. Available from:-
  270. http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/resources/.../en/WHA4925_eng.pdf.
  271. WHO. (2002a). Framework guidelines for addressing WPV in the health sector. International
  272. Labour Office (ILO), International Council of Nurses (ICN), World Health Organization
  273. (WHO), Public Services International (PSI) Joint Programme on Work place Violence e in the
  274. Health Sector. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  275. WHO. (2002b). World report on violence and health. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  276. Yang, Y., Xia, Y. (2015). On the number of factors to retain in exploratory factor analysis for ordered
  277. categorical data. Behav Res Methods, 47(3):756-72. doi: 10.3758/s13428-014-0499-2.
  278. Yıldırım, D., & Yıldırım A. (2010). Mobbing behaviours encountered by health science faculties
  279. staff and their responses to them. Turkish J Med Sci, 30,559-57.
  280. Yıldırım, D., Yıldırım, A., & Timucin, A. (2007). Mobbing behaviors encountered by nurse teaching
  281. staff. Nurs Ethics, 14,447-463. DOI:10.1177/0969733007077879
  282. Yildiz, S. (2015).The relationship between bullying and burnout. Sport, Business and Management:
  283. An International Journal, 5, 6 – 20. DOI:10.1108/SBM-09-2012-0034
  284. Young, A., Pearce, S. (2013). A Beginner’s Guide to Factor Analysis: Focusing on Exploratory
  285. Factor Analysis. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9, 79-94. DOI:
  286. 20982/tqmp.09.2.p079
  287. Jung, S., & Lee, S. (2011). Exploratory factor analysis for small samples. Behav Res, 43,701–
  288. DOI 10.3758/s13428-011-0077-9.
  289. Yurdakul, M., Türkleş, S., Vefikuruçay-Yılmaz, D.,Çelik T., Şahin M., & Özcan A. (2011)
  290. Workplace psychological intimidation behaviors encountered by midwives and nurses. Turkish
  291. Journal of Research and Development in Nursing, 3, 28-41.
  292. Zachariadou, T., Zannetos, S., Chira, S. E., Gregoriou, S, & Pavlakis, A. (2017). Prevalence and
  293. Forms of Workplace Bullying among Health-care Professionals in Cyprus: Greek Version of
  294. “Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror” Instrument. Safety and Health at Work, 9(3),
  295. Open Access, ScienceDirect. DOI:10.1016/J.SHAW.2017.11.003
  296. Zapf, D. (1999). Organisational, work group related and personal causes of mobbing/bullying at
  297. work. International Journal of Manpower, 20, 70 - 85. DOI:10.1108/01437729910268669
  298. Zapf, D., Einarsen, S. (2001). Bullying in the workplace: Recent trends in research and practice – an
  299. introduction. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1, 369-373.
  300. DOI:10.1080/13594320143000807
  301. Zapf, D., Escartn, J., Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., & Vartia, M. (2010). Empirical findings on the
  302. prevalence rate and risk groups of bullying in the workplace. In Einarsen, S., Hoel, H.D., Zapf,
  303. C.L. Cooper, (eds). Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory,
  304. research, and practice, 2nd ed. London: Taylor & Francis. p. 75-105.
  305. Zapf, D., Knorz, C., & Kulla, M. (1996). On the relationship between mobbing factors, and job
  306. content, social work environment, and health outcomes. European Journal of Work and
  307. Organizational Psychology, 5, 215-237. DOI:10.1080/13594329608414856