A BIOFACIE STUDY OF AN OUTCROPPING UNIT AT IBII QUARRY SITE, AFIKPO BASIN, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA
- Fossil assemblage,
- Sedimentological and Palynological
A Biofacie study of an outcropping unit at the Ibii quarry site, Afikpo Basin, South Eastern Nigeria was carried out to determine the fossil assemblage of the samples in relation to its lithological variations in order to determine the age and paleoenvironment of deposition, using a total of ten samples obtained from the field. The samples were further subjected to lithological/Sedimentological and palynological analysis respectively. The results for the lithological/Sedimentological analysis which cuts across both processes of lithological description, lithofacie and wet sieve analysis showed that the samples were highly calcareous, and the lithofacie analysis showed the presence of authigenic minerals such as quartz, heavy minerals, muscovite, gypsum, and mica flakes respectively while the wet sieve analysis showed a high value of shale to sand ratio all of which further depicts a marginal marine to marine depositional environment. The palynological analysis yielded practically no Palynomorph to very scanty to low quantity of palynomorphs. The palynomorphs include; Psilatricolporites sp, Laevigasporites discordatus, Diatom and Fungal spore. Although the analysis yielded no environmentally significant Palynomorph, the presence of Diatom and fungal spore in most of the samples portray that the samples were probably deposited in a marine setting.
Tectonophysics, 79(1–2), 109–128. doi:10.1016/0040-1951(81)90235-3.
Ajakaiye, D. E., & Burke, K. (1973). A Bouguer gravity map of Nigeria.
Tectonophysics, 16(1), 103–115.
Amajor, L. C. (1987). The Eze-Aku sandstone ridges (Turonian) of South eastern Nigeria: A reinterpretation of their Depositional origin. Nigerian Journal ofMining and Geology, 23(1), 17–26.
Amajor, L.C (1985).The Cenomanian hiatus in the Southern Benue Trough, Nigeria .Geological Magazine, 122(01),3950.doi:10.1017/S 0016756800034063.
Banerjee, I. (1980). A Subtidal bar model for the Eze-Aku sandstones, Nigeria.
Sedimentary Geology, 25(4),291–309. doi:10.1016/0037-0738(80)90066-4.
Benkhelil, J. (1989). The origin and evolution of the Cretaceous Benue Trough (Nigeria). Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East), 8(2–4), 251–282. Doi:10.1016/S0899-5362(89)80028-4.
Benkhelil, J. (1982). Benue Trough and Benue Chain. Geological Magazine, 119(02), 155–168. doi:10.1017/S001675680002584X.
Bullard, E.C., Everett, J.E., Smith, A.G., 1965. Fit of the continents
around the Atlantic. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society London A 258, 41–51.
Burke, K.C., (1996). The African Plate. South African Journal of
Geology 99, 341–409
Burke, K.C., Dessauvagie, T.F.J., Whiteman, A.J., (1972). Geological
history of the Benue valley and adjacent areas. In: Dessauvagie,
T.F.J., Whiteman, A.J. (Eds.), African Geology. University of
Ibadan Press, Nigeria, pp. 187–218.
Burke, K.C., Dessauvagie, T.F.J., Whiteman, A.J., (1971). The opening
of the Gulf of Guinea and the geological history of the Benue
depression and Niger delta. Nature Physical Science 233, 51–55.
Carter, J. D., Barber, W., Tait, E. A. and Jones, G. P. (1963). The Geology of parts of Adamawa, Bauchi and Bornu Provinces in North-Eastern Nigeria. Bull. Geol. Surv. Nigeria No. 30.
Cratchley, C. R., & Jones, G. P. (1965).An Interpretation of the geology and gravity anomalies of the Benue Valley, Nigeria. [With maps.].
Cross River (Nigeria). (2013, July 3). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Cross_River_ (Nigeria)&oldid=5403 99582.
Fairhead, J.D., Green, C.M., (1989). Controls on rifting in Africa and
the regional tectonic model for the Nigeria and East Niger rift
basins. Journal of African Earth Sciences 8, 231–249.
Falconer, J.D., Longbottom, A., & Woods, H. (1911).The Geology and Geography of Northern Nigeria. Macmillan and Company, Limited.
Farrington, J. L. (1952). A preliminary description of the Nigerian lead-zinc field.Economic Geology, 47(6), 583–608.
Guiraud, M. (1993).Late Jurassic rifting-early Cretaceous rifting and late Cretaceous transpressional inversion in the upper Benue basin (NE Nigeria).Bulletin DesCentres de Recherches Exploration-Production Elf Aquitaine, 17(2), 371–383.
Hamza, H. Obaje, N. G, and Obiso, E.O. (2002).Foraminifera assemblage and Paleoenviroment of the Fika Shale Bornu Basin, Northeastern Nigeria.Journal of Mining and Geology, Vol. 38(No.1), pp. 49-55.
Igwe, E.O., Ngwu, C.N, and Edene, E. N., (2013). Petrographical and Geochemical Characteristics of Pyroclastics Outcropping in Abakaliki Area Lower Benue Trough, Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Environment and Science, Vol. 13, pp. 14-22.
Inyang, P. E. B.( 1978). The Climatic Regions. In: Ofomata, G. E. K. (ed.) TheNsukka. Environment.Ethiope Publication, Benin. 17 – 24.
King, L.C., (1950). Outline and disruption of Gondwanaland. Geological Magazine 87, 353–359.
Kogbe, C. A. (1989). Paleogeographic history of Nigeria from Albian times.In
Geology of Nigeria. Elizabethan Publishers, Lagos (pp. 237–252).
McKay, R. A., (1939). Structural ndLithollogical Differences between Amasiri Sandstone and Afikpo Sandstone within the Afikpo sub-Basin, Southeastern Nigeria.
Monanu, P.C., (1975). Temperature and Sunshine. In: Oformata, G.E.K. (ed.). Nigeria in Maps: Eastern States, p. 4 – 15.
Murat, R. C. (1972). Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Cretaceous and lower Tertiary in Southern Nigeria. In Proc. of the Conf. on African Geology held atIbadan, Nigeria. pp (pp. 251–266).
Murat, R.C., (1970). Stratigraphy and Palaeogeography of the Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary in Southern Nigeria. African Geology, University of Ibadan press, p. 251 – 268.
Nwachukwu, S. O. (1972). The tectonic evolution of the the southern portion of the Benue Trough, Nigeria.Geological Magazine, 109(05), 411–419. doi:10.1017/S0016756800039790.
Nwajide, C. S. (2013). Geology of Nigeria’s Sedimentary Basins. Lagos: CSS Press.
Nwajide, C. S. and Reijers, T. J. A. (1996). Geology of the Southern Anambra Basin. In: Reijers, T. J. A. (ed.). Selected Chapters on Geology.SPDC Corporate Reprographic Services, Warri, Nigeria. 131 – 148.
Oboh-Ikuenobe, F. E., Obi, C. G., & Jaramillo, C. A. (2005).Lithofacies, palynofacies, and sequence stratigraphy of Palaeogene strata in Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 41(1–2), 79–101. doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2005.02.002.
Odigi, M.I., (2012) Sedimentology of the Nkporo Campanian-Maastrichtian Conglomeratic Formation, Afikpo Sub-Basin, Southeastern Benue Trough, Nigeria. Journal of Minning and Geology. Vol. 48(1) 2012, pp.45-55.
Odigi, M. I., & Amajor, L. C. (2009b).Geochemical characterization of Cretaceous sandstones from the Southern Benue Trough, Nigeria.Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, 28(1), 44–54. doi:10.1007/s11631-009-0044-7.
Odigi, M. I., & Amajor, L. C. (2009a). Brittle deformation in the Afikpo Basin (Southeast Nigeria): Evidence for a terminal Cretaceous extensional regime in the Lower Benue Trough, Nigeria. Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, 28(4), 369–376. doi:10.1007/s11631-009-0369-2.
Odigi, M.I. (2007). Facies architecture and sequence stratigrapy of Cretaceous formations, southeastern Benue Trough, Nigeria. Ph.D, Thesis, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.,312pp.
Ogbonnaya, C.O. (2012). Sedimentology and Facies Analysis of Amasiri Sandstone, Lower Benue Trough, South Eastern Nigeria. pp. 6-138.
Ojoh, K. A. (1992). The southern part of the Benue Trough (Nigeria) Cretaceous stratigraphy, basin analysis, paleogeography, and geodynamic evolution in the equatorial domain of the South Atlantic.NAPE Bull, 7(2), 131–152.
Ojoh, K.A. (1990). Cretaceous geodynamic evolution of the southern part of the Benue Trough (Nigeria) inthe equatorial domain of the south Atlantic:stratigraphy, basin analysis, and paleogeography. Bull. Centres Rech. Explor-Prod. Elf-Aquitaine 14, 2, pp. 419-442.
Okoro A. U., Ofuegbu, C,O. andIge, O.E.,(2012). A review of the Geology of the Benue Trough , Nigerian journal of African earth Sciences, Vol.55(2) pp. 45-52.
Oloto, I.N., Ilagha, A., (2013) Petrographical studies of Amate Area, Afikpo Basin Southern Benue trough . International Journal of Innovative Research in Science , Engineering and Technology.
Omoboriowo, A.O., Okengwu., K.C., Ugwueze, C.U., Soronnadi-Ononiwu, G.C., Acra, E.J., Chiaghanam, O.I. and Chiadikobi, K.C. (2012). Geochemical Characterization of Afikpo Basin, Arochukwu Area, South Eastern Nigeria. Advances in Applied Research, 2012, 3(6): 3652-3657.
Petters, S. W. (1980).Biostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous foraminifers of the Benue Trough, Nigeria.The Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 10(3), 191–204.
Petters, S.W.(1978). Mid – Cretaceous Paleoenvironmental and Biostratigraphy of Benue Trough, Nigeria. AAPG Bulletin, 69, 4: 601-617.
Reyment, R. A. (1965). Aspects of the Geology of Nigeria: The Stratigraphy of the Cretaceous and Cenozoic Deposits. Ibadan University Press.
Shell, B. P. (1957). Geological maps, 1: 250 000 Sheets: Makurdi (64); Ankpa (63); Enugu (72); Ogoja (73); Umuahia (79); Oban Hills (80); Calabar (85). Geological Survey of Nigeria.
Short, K.C. and Stauble, A.J., (1967). Outline of Nigeria Delta. American Association Petroleum Geologist. Bulletin, V. 5, p. 761 – 779.
Simpson, A. (1954).The Nigerian Coal Field, Geology of Parts of Onitsha, Owerri and Benue Provinces. Bull. Geol. Surv. Nig. 24, 1 – 31.
Ukaegbu, V.U and Akpabio, I.O., (2009). Geology and Stratigraphy of Northeast of Afikpo Basin, Lower Benue Trough, Nigeria. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 10(1): 518-527.
Umeji, A. C. (2000). Evolution of the Abakaliki and the Anambra Sedimentary Basins, Southeastern Nigeria [R].A Report Submitted to the Shell Petroleum Development Company Ltd, 155.
Wilson, R. C., & Bain, A. D. N. (1928).The Nigerian Coalfield: Section II. Parts of Onitsha and Owerri Provinces... Nigerian Government.