Distribution and Occurrence of Wheat Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia
Wheat stem rust (black rust) is one of the most important airborne diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum) caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici remains a constraint to the world’s wheat production. Because of the sudden changes in stem rust race patterns, commercial varieties tend to become vulnerable globally at large and particularly in Ethiopia. It was responsible to cause 6.2 million metric tonnes per year or higher losses under severe epidemics at global level. Therefore, this study was initiated to assess information on the current distribution of wheat stem rust in the study area. Purposive multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select major wheat growing zones, districts and peasant associations. Assessment was carried out on 95 wheat farms in 7 districts across the three zones of Tigray region. The results of the study showed that wheat stem rust was 70.53% prevalent across the study areas with significantly (p < 0.01) varied incidence and severity damage among fields, districts, and zones. The mean prevalence of stem rust was 85.55% in Southern, 62.22% in Eastern and 53.33% in Southeast zones. The highest disease incidence of 78.67, 66.5, and 47.33% were recorded in Kilte Awulaelo, Raya Azebo, and Ofla districts, with corresponding severity of 43.67, 35, and 21.93%, respectively. The overall mean incidence and severity of stem rust was 41.84 and 21.36% respectively, which is higher than the previous reports from the region indicated an increase in its distribution and intensity. Therefore, there is a need to develop a coordinated network on the wheat stem rust assessment program for virulence and/or avirulence updated information in the region.
Abebe T, Getaneh W, Woubit D (2012). Analysis of pathogen virulence of wheat stem rust and cultivar reaction to virulent races in Tigray, Ethiopia. African Journal of Plant Science Vol. 6(9): 244-250.
Admassu B, Lind V, Friedt W, Ordon F (2009). Virulence analysis of Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici populations in Ethiopia with special consideration of Ug99. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.01976.x. pp. 362-369.
Ambika R, Meenakshi D (2018). Wheat Stem Rust Race Ug99: A Shifting Enemy.Int.J.Curr. Microbial. App.Sci.7 (01):12621266.doi:https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcms. 2018. 701. 153.
Badebo A, Bekele E, Bekele B, Hundie B, Degefu M ( 2008). Review of two decades of research on diseases of small cereal crops. In: Tadesse Abraham (Eds). Increasing crop production through improved plant protection volume I. Proceedings of the 14th annual conference of plant protection society of Ethiopia (PPSE) 19-22 December. 2006 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 375-416.
Beyene L, Shiferaw B, Sahoo A, Gbegbelegbe S (2016). Economy-wide impacts of technological change in food staples in Ethiopia. A macro-micro approach: pp.1-29.
Bhavani S, Singh R, Argilliers O, Huerta E, Singh S, Njus P (2011). Mapping of durable adult plant stem rust resistance in six CIMMYT wheat to Ug99 group of races. Oral Presentations. BGRI Technical Workshop.
Chen S, Guo Y, Briggs J, Dubach F, Chao S, Zhang W, Rouse M, Dubcovsky J, (2018). Mapping and characterization of wheat stem rust resistance genes SrTm5 and Sr60 from Triticum monococcum. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 131(3): pp.625-635.
CSA (2014). Report on Area and production of Major Crops. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia; Central Statistics Agency Agricultural Sample Survey for 2013/2014. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Available at: www.csa.gov.et.
CSA (2018). Report on Area and production of Major Crops. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia; Central Statistics Agency Agricultural Sample Survey for 2017/2018. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 1: pp.1-125.
Dagnatchew Y (1967). Plant disease of economic importance in Ethiopia. Haileslassie I University, College of Agriculture, Environmental station bulletin. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: pp. 30.
Duvalier E, Singh R, Nicol J (2007). The challenges of maintaining wheat productivity: pests, diseases, and potential epidemics. Euphytica 157: pp. 417–430.
FAO (2017a). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. FAO Global Statistical Year book. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC. Metadata last certified Nov. 2017.
FAO (2017b). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. News article: Spread of damaging wheat rust continues: new races found in Europe, Africa, and Central Asia. Available on line at http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item /469467/ code/. Accessed 20 April 2017.
Fetch T, McCallum B, Menzies J, Rashid K, Tenuta A (2011). Rust Diseases in Canada. Prarie Soils and Crops Journall: pp.4.
Figueroa M, Hammond-kosack K, Solomon S (2017). Review of wheat diseases a field perspective. Molecular Plant Pathology. doi: 10.1111/m: pp.12618.
Gebremariam H, Tanner D, Huluka M (2011). Wheat Research in Ethipoia. A Historical Perspective. IARI and CIMMTY, Addis Ababa.
Hailu A, Woldeab G, Dawit W, Hailu E (2015a). Distribution of Wheat Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici) in West and Southwest Shewa Zones and Identification of its Physiological Races. Adv Crop Sci Tech 3: 189. doi:10.4172/2329-8863.1000189.
Hailu E, Woldaeb G, Denbel W, Alemu W, Abebe T, Mekonnen A (2015b). Distribution of Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici) Races in Ethiopia. 3(2): pp. 15-19. doi: 10.11648/j.plant.20150302.11.
Hei N, Shimelis HA, Laing M (2017). Appraisal of farmers’ wheat production constraints and breeding priorities in rust prone agro-ecologies of Ethiopia. African journal of agricultural research, 12: pp. 944-952. 10.5897/AJAR2016.11518.
Hill R, Fuje H (2017). Cereal Market Performance in Ethiopia: Policy Implications for Improving Investments in Maize and Wheat Value Chains. Agriculture Global Practice GFA13. May 30, 2018. pp. 9.
Hodson D (2015). Summary of Ethiopia 2014/15 rust situation. Re-current, localized stem rust epidemics caused by race TKTTF (“Digalu” race) in Ethiopia. Extreme caution and vigilance needed in East Africa. Rust tracker.org, Global wheat rust monitoring system. Available online at http://rusttracker.cimmyt.org/?p=6465.
Jain K, Prashar M, Bhardwaj C, Singh B, Sharma P (2009). Emergence of virulence to Sr25 of Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici on wheat in India. Plant Disease Journal 93 (8): 355 - 840.
Joseph K, Karen B, Marcia M, Bruce G, Turkington K (2007). Managing Plant Disease Risk in Diversified Cropping Systems. Journal of Agronomy 94: pp. 198 -200.
Mandefro A (2000). Influence of Micro environment in the development of Rust Epidemics, On Durem wheat (TriticumturgidumL. var durum) M.sc. Thesis.
Mideksa T, Fininsa C, Hundie B (2018). Analysis of Climate Variability Effects on Wheat Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici) Epidemics in Bale and Arsi Zones of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. American Journal of Biological and Environmental Statistics. Vol. 4, No. 2, doi: 10.11648/j.ajbes.20180402.12. pp. 49-65.
Olivera P, Newcomb M, Szabo L, Rouse M, Johnson J, Gale S (2015). Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of race TKTTF of Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici that caused a wheat stem rust epidemic in southern Ethiopia in 2013/14. Phytopathology 105, pp. 917–928. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-11-14-0302-FI.
Pardey P, Beddow J, Kriticos D, Hurley T, Park R, Duveiller E., Sutherst R, Burdon J, Hodson D (2013). Right sizing stem rust research science. 340: pp. 147-148. DOI 10.1126/science.122970.
Peterson R, Campbell A, Hannah A (1948). A diagrammatic scale for estimating rust intensity on leaves and stems of cereals. Canadaian Journal Research 26: pp. 496-500.
Peterson D (2001). Stem Rust of Wheat from Ancient Enemy to the Modern Foe. The American Phytopathological Society. APS Press. St. Paul, Minnesota.
Rahmatov M, Rouse N, Steffenson J, Anderson C, Wanyera R, Pretorius A, Houben A, Kumarse N, Bhavani S, Johansson E (2016). Sources of stem rust resistance in wheat-alien introgression lines. Plant Dis. 100:pp. 1101-1109.
Roelfs AP, Singh RP, Saari EE (1992). Rust Diseases of Wheat: Concept and Methods of Disease Management. CIMMYT: pp. 81.
Stokes M, Davis S, Koch G (2012). Categorical data analysis SAS. SAS institute.
Shiferaw B, Negassa A, Koo J, Wood J, Sonder K, Braun A, Payne T (2011). Future of wheat production in Sub-Saharan Africa: analyses of the expanding gap between supply and demand and economic profitability of domestic production. Paper presented at the Agricultural Productivity-Africa Conference 1–3 November 2011, Africa Hall, UNECA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Shiferaw B, Smale M, Braun J, Duveiller E, Reynolds M, Muricho G (2013). Crops that feed the world 10. Past successes and future challenges to the role played by wheat in global food security. Food Security, 5(3): pp. 291-317.
Singh RP, Hodson DP, Huerta-Espino J, Jin Y, Njau P, Wanyera R, Herrera-Foessel S, Ward RW (2008). Will stem rust destroy the world’s wheat crop? Adv. Agronomy. 98: pp. 271-310.
Singh RP, Hodson DP, Jin Y, Lagudah ES, Ayliffe MA, Bhavani S, Rouse MN, Pretorius ZA, Szabo LJ, Huerta-espino J, Basnet BR, Lan, C, Hovmøller MS (2015). ‘Emergence and Spread of New Races of Wheat Stem Rust Fungus. Continued Threat to Food Security and Prospects of Genetic Control. Pp. 99.
Woldeab G, Hailu E, Negash T (2016). Detection of Barberry plants (Berberis holstii) as an alternate host of stem rust (Puccinia graminis) of wheat in Ethiopia. Pest Management Journal of Ethiopia. 19: pp. 17-26.
Zadoks J, Chang T, Kanzak C (1974). A decimal code for the growth stage of cereals. Weed Research 14: pp. 415-421.
Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal For Research In Agricultural And Food Science (ISSN: 2208-2719)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
In consideration of the journal, Green Publication taking action in reviewing and editing our manuscript, the authors undersigned hereby transfer, assign, or otherwise convey all copyright ownership to the Editorial Office of the Green Publication in the event that such work is published in the journal. Such conveyance covers any product that may derive from the published journal, whether print or electronic. Green Publication shall have the right to register copyright to the Article in its name as claimant, whether separately
or as part of the journal issue or other medium in which the Article is included.
By signing this Agreement, the author(s), and in the case of a Work Made For Hire, the employer, jointly and severally represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published elsewhere, and is not being considered for publication elsewhere in any form, except as provided herein. Each author’s signature should appear below. The signing author(s) (and, in