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The signing author(s) (and, in THE PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF MADDA WALABU UNIVERSITY, ETHIOPIA https://gnpublication.org/index.php/ssh/article/view/1029 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong><em> Students experiencing psychological problems, such as depression, anxiety, and stress, may face problems in managing their educational activities. </em></p> <p><em><strong>Objective:</strong> The main purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates psychological distress among undergraduate Madda Walabu University students. </em></p> <p><em><strong>Design:</strong> To achieve the objective cross-sectional research design was employed. Participants: Robe and Goba campus Madda Walabu University students were the aggregate populations of the study. The total number of population was </em>11,718<em>. Of </em>11718 students,<em> 384 students were obtained by using proportionate stratified random sampling technique using colleges as strata. </em></p> <p><em><strong>Instrument:</strong> DAS-S-depression, anxiety, stress scale, and questionnaires developed by the researchers to identify the determinant factors of depression, anxiety and stress were used to collect the data. Analysis: Quantitatively the collected data was analyzed by using percentage, Pearson correlation, and mean scores and standard deviation. </em></p> <p><em><strong>Result and interpretation</strong>: Among the participants, </em><em>42.1 % of the students were under depressive symptoms (13.0% mild level; 12.8% moderate level; 9.9% severe level and the rest 5.5% under extremely severe level). In terms of anxiety, 48.1 % of respondents score high anxiety level. Specifically, 6.3%, were mild; 19 % were a moderate level of anxiety; 15.1 % and 8% of the students were under severe and extremely severe level respectively. 50.3 % of the respondents were under stressful situations (19.3% mild, 21.6% moderate; 7.8% severe and 1.6% were under extremely severe condition). The Pearson correlation results indicate that there is a significant negative correlation between depression, anxiety, and stress with academic achievement. Ten identified and accepted determinant factors that led students to were psychological distress were Substance use; chronic diseases; conflicts in terms of religious issues among students; conflicts in terms of racial issues among students; family functioning problem; poor study habits; excessive pressure or coercion from parents; excessive pressure or coercion from teachers; difficulty in making friend, and unfair assessment of instructors due difference in ethnicity.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><em><strong>Recommendation: </strong>The results suggest that the early prevention of anxiety, depression, and stress is critical since, if left untreated, it can have serious consequences on students' future health and career possibilities.</em></p> Mulugeta Deribe Damota Emebet Girma Mekuria Alemihun Fenta Bitew Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal For Research In Social Science And Humanities | ISSN: 2208-2697 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-08-28 2019-08-28 5 8 01 18 ELECTIONS PRESIDENTIELLE ET LEGISLATIVE DE 2011 EN REPUBLIQUE DEMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO : LA CAMPAGNE ELECTORALE AU MEPRIS DE LA LOI https://gnpublication.org/index.php/ssh/article/view/1087 <p>Dedicated to the progress of the election campaign at the time of the presidential and legislative elections of 2011 in Democratic Republic of Congo, this article explains the observed irregularities. Among these irregularities, we can mention: the election campaign anticipated, the illegal use money, the materials and the staff of the state. The main people who didn't respect the electoral law were the authorities and the candidates of the party to the power. Unfortunately, all these people who had not respected the law have not been punished by the judicial institutions of the country.</p> Guy Angbongi Gongwa Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal For Research In Social Science And Humanities | ISSN: 2208-2697 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-08-28 2019-08-28 5 8 19 28 COMMUNITY MEMBERS’ SELF-HELP INITIATIVES IN SOLVING WATER PROBLEMS IN MOROGORO DISTRICT, TANZANIA https://gnpublication.org/index.php/ssh/article/view/1090 <p>In response to poor performance of water schemes and for sustainable water resources management the government of Tanzania introduced new water policies of 1991 and 2002 which now leaves the management and operation of community water supply services in the hands of communities through self-help initiatives. However, despite community involvement through self-help actions the country has continued to experience serious water problems especially in rural areas. This study assessed community members’ self-help initiatives in solving water problems in Morogoro District, Morogoro Region in Tanzania, focusing on: examining the extent of community water problems and assessing the level of community members’ self-help initiatives. A total of 365 household heads from four wards were randomly selected for a household survey while 8 Focus Group Discussions were conducted in eight villages. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The study found that the extent of existing water problems was high in terms of per capita water quantity, water quality, distance to water source, queuing and water source dry up or seasonality. Constrained by several factors, the level of community members’ self-help initiatives was low. Further, the study found that there was significant negative relationship (r=-0.162 at p&lt;0.05) between self-help initiatives and water problems, leading to rejection of the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between self-help and water problems. The study then recommends: (i) expansion of water infrastructure in the aspects of water source types that guarantee safe, sufficient and sustainable water supply and (ii) more effective community mobilization and greater support of private and community initiatives in water supply issues.</p> Dr. Henry Chukwuma Umeodum † Dr. Flavianus T. Magayane Dr. Hezron Nonga Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal For Research In Social Science And Humanities | ISSN: 2208-2697 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-08-28 2019-08-28 5 8 29 57