Vol 5 No 8 (2019): International Journal For Research In Social Science And Humanities (ISSN: 2208-2697)
Articles

COMMUNITY MEMBERS’ SELF-HELP INITIATIVES IN SOLVING WATER PROBLEMS IN MOROGORO DISTRICT, TANZANIA

Dr. Henry Chukwuma Umeodum
Jordan University College
† Dr. Flavianus T. Magayane
Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro Tanzania
Bio
Dr. Hezron Nonga
Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro Tanzania
Bio
Published August 28, 2019
Keywords
  • Self-help,
  • water problems,
  • initiatives,
  • community involvement,
  • sustainability
How to Cite
Umeodum, D. H. C., Magayane, † D. F. T., & Nonga, D. H. (2019). COMMUNITY MEMBERS’ SELF-HELP INITIATIVES IN SOLVING WATER PROBLEMS IN MOROGORO DISTRICT, TANZANIA. International Journal For Research In Social Science And Humanities | ISSN: 2208-2697, 5(8), 29-57. Retrieved from https://gnpublication.org/index.php/ssh/article/view/1090

Abstract

In response to poor performance of water schemes and for sustainable water resources management the government of Tanzania introduced new water policies of 1991 and 2002 which now leaves the management and operation of community water supply services in the hands of communities through self-help initiatives. However, despite community involvement through self-help actions the country has continued to experience serious water problems especially in rural areas. This study assessed community members’ self-help initiatives in solving water problems in Morogoro District, Morogoro Region in Tanzania, focusing on: examining the extent of community water problems and assessing the level of community members’ self-help initiatives. A total of 365 household heads from four wards were randomly selected for a household survey while 8 Focus Group Discussions were conducted in eight villages. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The study found that the extent of existing water problems was high in terms of per capita water quantity, water quality, distance to water source, queuing and water source dry up or seasonality. Constrained by several factors, the level of community members’ self-help initiatives was low. Further, the study found that there was significant negative relationship (r=-0.162 at p<0.05) between self-help initiatives and water problems, leading to rejection of the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between self-help and water problems. The study then recommends: (i) expansion of water infrastructure in the aspects of water source types that guarantee safe, sufficient and sustainable water supply and (ii) more effective community mobilization and greater support of private and community initiatives in water supply issues.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

  1. Abdulla, F.A. and Al-Shareef, A.W. (2009).Roof rainwater harvesting systems for household water supply in Jordan. Desalination 243(3): 195 – 207.
  2. Adedayo, A. (1985). The implications of community leadership for rural development planning in Nigeria. Community Development Journal 20(1): 24 – 31.
  3. Ademu, S.R. (2009). Domestic water supply: An evaluation of the impacts, challenges and prospects on women in rural households in Uganda. Dissertation for Award of MSc at Lund University, Sweden, 50pp.
  4. Adetona, C.I. and Oladeinde, C. (2013). The role of community self-help projects in rural development of Kwara state, Nigeria. International Journal of Development and Sustainability 2(5): 1 – 15.
  5. Akhimien, F.O. and Ehisuoria, S.E. (2012). An assessment of community self-help efforts in the development of Emuhi community in South-South region, Nigeria. Confluence Journal of Environmental Studies 7: 53 – 58.
  6. Aladenola, O.O. and Adeboye, O.B. (2010).Assessing the potential for rainwater harvesting. Water Resources Management 24(10): 2129 – 2137.
  7. Athuman, J. (2014). Assessment of water supply and its implications on household income in KabukuNdani Ward, Handeni District, Tanzania. Dissertation for Award of Master of Arts in Rural Developmentat Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, 60pp.
  8. Baggaley, R.F., Solomon, A.W., Kuper, H., Polack, S., Massae, P.A., Kelly, J., Safari, S., Alexander, N.D.E., Courtright, P., Foster, A. and Mabey, D.C. (2006). Distance to water source and altitude in relation to active trachoma in Rombo District, Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and International Health 11(2): 220 – 227.
  9. Berner, E. and Phillips, B. (2003). Left to their own devices? Community self-help between alternative development and neoliberalism. [http://www.n aerus.net/web/sat/workshops/2003/papers/docs/5.pdf] site visited on 10/1/2014.
  10. Biswas, A. K. (2004). Integrated water resources management: a reassessment: A water forum contribution. Water international 29(2): 248 – 256.
  11. Biswas, A. K., Ünver, O. andTortajada, C. (2004). Water as a Focus for Regional Development. Oxford University Press, New Delhi. 378pp.
  12. Boone, C., Glick, P. and Sahn, D. E. (2011). Household water supply choice and time allocated to water collection: Evidence from Madagascar. Journal of Development Studies 47(12): 1826 – 1850.
  13. Burns, D. and Taylor, M. (1998).Mutual aid and self-help: Coping strategies for excluded communities. [http://hls.uwe.ac.uk/research/data/sites/1/docs/solar/mutualaid%26self-help.pdf] site visited 20/1/2014.
  14. Carter, R. (2006). Investigating options for self-help water supply: From field research to pilot interventions in Uganda.[http://www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/publications/326200793645_UgandaSelfSupply.pdf] site visited on 20/5/2016.
  15. Carter, R., Mpalanyi, J. and Ssebalu, J. (2003). Self-help Initiatives to Improve Water Supplies Eastern Uganda: A Case Study of RWSN Self-supply Flagship. Rural Water Supply Network Press, St. Gallen. 48pp.
  16. Creasy, G.L (2006).Research Methods in Lifespan Development. Pearson Press, Boston. 903pp.
  17. De-sherbin, A., Carr, D., Cassels, S. and Jiang, L. (2007).Population and environment.Annual Review of Environment and Resources 32(3):345 – 373.
  18. Dombrowski, K. (2017). Water.Development and Cooperation (D+C). [https://www.dandc.eu/sites/default/files/pdf_files/2017-06-dc.pdf] site visited on 10/7/2017.
  19. Gazzinelli, A., Souza, M.C.C., Nascimento, I., Sá, I.R., Cadete, M.M.M. and Kloos, H. (1998).Domestic water use in a rural village in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with an emphasis on spatial patterns, sharing of water, and factors in water use. Cadernos de Saúde Pública 14(2): 265 – 277.
  20. Guy, H. and Haller, L. (Eds) (2004).Evaluation of the Cost and Benefit of Water and Sanitation Improvement at the Global Level. World Health Organization, Geneva. 87pp.
  21. Helmreich, B. and Horn, H. (2009).Opportunities in rainwater harvesting. Desalination 248(3): 118 – 124.
  22. Hope, R.A. and Gowing, J. W. (2003). Managing water to reduce poverty: water and livelihood linkages in a rural South African context. [https://assets.Publicshing.service.gov.uk/media/57a08ce7e5274a31e000151e/R7937j.pdf] site visited on 5/4/2016.
  23. Hunter, P. R., MacDonald, A. M., and Carter, R. C. (2010). Water supply and health. [https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1000361] site visited on 24/4/2016.
  24. Jiménez, A. and Pérez-Foguet, A. (2010). Challenges for water governance in rural water supply: lessons learned from Tanzania. International Journal of Water Resources Development 26(2): 235 – 248.
  25. Jiménez, A. and Pérez-Foguet, A. (2012). Quality and year-round availability of water delivered by improved water points in rural Tanzania: effects on coverage. Water Policy14(3): 509 – 523.
  26. Kahinda, J.M.M., Taigbenu, A.E. and Boroto, J. R. (2007). Domestic rainwater harvesting to improve water supply in rural South Africa. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Parts 32(15): 1050 – 1057.
  27. Koppen, V. B. (2000). From Bucket to Basin: Managing Basins to Alleviate Water Deprivation. International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri-Lanka. 34pp.
  28. Koppen, B., Hatibu, N., Lankford, B.A., Mahoo, H., Sokile, C.S. and Yanda, P. (2007). Water rights and water fees in rural Tanzania.[https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/242617739_Water_Rights_and_Water_Fees_in_Rural_Tanzania] site visited on 19/6/2017.
  29. Kumamaru, K. (2011). A Comparative assessment of communal water supply and self-supply models for sustainable rural water supplies: A Case study of Luapula, Zambia. Thesis for Award of PhD Degree at Loughborough University, London, 330pp.
  30. Kyamani, W. A. (2013). Determinants of rural water project sustainability: a case of Rufiji district, Pwani region, Tanzania. Dissertation for Award of Master of Arts in Rural Development at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, 94pp.
  31. Lindsey, E., W. and Kurtz, P., D. (1987). A locality development approach to delinquency prevention in rural areas. Human Services in the Rural Environment 11(2): 9 – 15.
  32. Madulu, N.F. (2003). Linking poverty levels to water resource use and conflicts in rural Tanzania. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 28(20): 911 – 917.
  33. Malangalila, S. M. (2009). Analysis of community participation in education subprojects of TASAF: The Case of Morogoro and Iringa District in Tanzania. Thesis for Award of PhD at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, 114pp.
  34. Maltha, A. and Veldman, R. (2016). A market-based approach to scale up sustainable rural water supply: experiences from Tanzania. [http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/res ources/conference/39/Maltha-2439.pdf] site visited on 3/1/2017.
  35. Mandara, C. G., Geoffrey, C. and Niehof, A. (2013). Community Management and Sustainability of Rural Water Facilities in Tanzania. International Water Association Publishing, Wageningen, Netherlands. 95pp.
  36. Mchome, E. (2010). Paying the price of not harvesting rain water.[http://www.thec itizen.co.tz/sunday-citizen/38-sunday-magazine/1295-paying-the-price-of-not -har vesting-rain-water.html] site visited on 12/5/2010.
  37. Miller, S.A. (2006). Development Research Methods(3rd Ed.). Sage Publishers, London. 1012pp.
  38. Minkler, M. (Ed) (2012). Community Organizing and Community Building for Health and Welfare. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick. 512pp.
  39. Ngoja, T. (2015).Community perception of their participation in the implementation and sustainability of rural water projects in Morogoro Rural District Council. Thesis for the Award of PhD at Mzumbe University, Morogoro, Tanzania. 86pp.
  40. Njoh, A.J. (2006). Determinants of success in community self-help projects: The case of the Kumbo water supply scheme in Cameroon. International Development Planning Review 28(3):381 – 406.
  41. Njoh, A. J. (2011). Citizen participation and sustainability: Lessons from Cameroon. Development 54(3): 376 – 383.
  42. Rogers, P., De Silva, R. and Bhatia, R. (2002). Water is an economic good: How to use prices to promote equity, efficiency, and sustainability. Water Policy 4(1): 1 – 17.
  43. Rothman, J. (1968). Three models of community organization practice. [http://www.calgary.ca/CSPS/CNS/Pages/Publications-guides-and-directoies/Community-Assessment-Handbook/Rothman%27s-Three-Models-of Community-Organizing.aspx] site visited on 13/12/2013.
  44. Seyfang, G. (2004). Time banks: Rewarding community self-help in the inner city? [http://www.complementarycurrency.org/ccLibrary/materials/time_banks_rewarding_community_self_help.pdf] site visited 20/1/2014.
  45. Smits, S. and Sutton, S. (2012). Self-supply: The Case for leveraging greater household investment in water supply. [http://rural-water-supply.net/fr/resources/details 481] site visited on 8/12/2013.
  46. SNV (2010). Water point mapping: The experience of SNV Tanzania. [http://www.improveinternational.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/04/water_point_mapping-_the_experience_of_snv_tanzania1.pdf] site visited on 24/7/2017.
  47. Sutton, S. (2009). An introduction to self-supply, putting the user first: Incremental improvements and private investment in rural water supply. [http://www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/publications/Af_SelfSupply_1.pdf] site visited on 6/10/2016.
  48. Sutton, S. (2011). Accelerating self-supply: Summary of progress in introducing a new approach. [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/_ressources/documents/default/241.pdf] site visited on 20/10/2016.
  49. Tamuno, O. and Iroh, W. (2012). Community self-help projects and rural development in Ohafia Local Government Area. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa 14(4):48 – 59.
  50. Theodory, T.S and Malipula M. M. (2012).Supplying domestic water services to informal settlement in Manzes, Dar es Salaam: Challenges and way forward. Rural Planning Journal 14(2): 60 – 73.
  51. Thompson, J., Porras, I.T., Wood, E., Tumwine, J.K., Mujwahuzi, M.R., Katui-Katua, M. and Johnstone, N. (2000).Waiting at the tap: Changes in urban water use in East Africa over three decades. Environment and Urbanization 12(2): 37 – 52.
  52. UN (2010). The right to water.[http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FactShe et35en.pdf] site visited on 7/3/2017.
  53. UN (2014). The United Nations world water development water and energy.[http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002156/215644e.pdf] site visited on 6/7/2017.
  54. URT (2002). National Water Policy. Government Printers, Dar es Salaam. 49pp.
  55. URT (2007a). Poverty and Human Development Report. Research on Poverty Alleviation Dar es Salaam. 104pp.
  56. URT (2007b). Morogoro. [http://www.tanzania.go.tz/regions/Morogoro.pdf] site visited on 10/12/2013.
  57. URT (2012). National Water Policy. Government Printers, Dar es Salaam. 47pp.
  58. URT (2013). Population and Housing Census 2012. National Bureau of Statistics. Government Printer, Dar es Salaam. 58pp.
  59. URT (2014). Poverty and Human Development Report: Research and Analysis Working Group MKUKUTA Monitoring System. Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs. Dar es Salaam. 66pp.
  60. URT (2016). MKUKUTA II Assessment Report: Taking Stock and Forging the National Future. Ministry of Financing and Planning, Dar es Salaam. 75pp.
  61. Walsh, K. and O’Shea, E. (2008). Responding to rural social care needs: Older people empowering themselves, others and their community. Health and Place 14(2): 795 – 805.
  62. WaterAid (2017). Country Information: Tanzania. [http://www.wateraid.org/where-we-work/page/Tanzania] site visited on 2/7/2017.
  63. Wily, L.A. (2018). Briefs on the legal status of community property at the global, African, and Kenyan levels. [https://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/default/ files/documents/Brief%202%20%20Community%20Property%20in%20Africa.pdf] site visited on 3/8/2018.
  64. Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: An introductory analysis. [http://mathhelpforum. com/advanced-statistics/181149-prove-formula-taro-yamane.html] site visited on 3/5/2014.