Vol 5 No 11 (2019): International Journal For Research In Social Science And Humanities (ISSN: 2208-2697)

Adaptation, validation and application of the Healthcare Empowerment Questionnaire (HCEQ) in an Egyptian inpatient setting

Basem Abdel-Aziz
Alexandria University
Published November 8, 2019
  • Individual Patient Empowerment,
  • Health Care Empowerment Questionnaire,
  • Crosscultural adaptation,
  • Validation,
  • Exploratory Factor Analysis,
  • Confirmatory Factor Analysis,
  • Structural Equation Modeling,
  • Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis,
  • Measurement invariance
  • ...More
How to Cite
Abdel-Aziz, B. (2019). Adaptation, validation and application of the Healthcare Empowerment Questionnaire (HCEQ) in an Egyptian inpatient setting. International Journal For Research In Social Science And Humanities | ISSN: 2208-2697, 5(11), 01-46. Retrieved from https://gnpublication.org/index.php/ssh/article/view/1055


Individual patient empowerment (IPE) is becoming a prominent priority for healthcare policy makers allover the globe. Ten-item Health Care Empowerment Questionnaire (HCEQ) was formally translated from English to Arabic and was used to measure IPE among inpatients in surgical and medical departments in an Egyptian university hospital. Factorial validity of the standard tridimensional HCEQ structure was established through global and local fit diagnostics. The unidimensional structure proved to be a non-viable option.  A competing more parsimonious two-factor structure proved to be a viable but less well-fitting than the standard tridimensional model. Convergent validity was demonstrated via adequate subscales alpha coefficients, composite reliabilities, variances extracted, and weight and significance of item loadings. Discriminant validity was verified by moderate interfactor correlations and subscales composite reliabilities were greater than average variance extracted. Multiple group confirmatory analysis authenticated model's invariance across two randomly split subsamples, departments and genders. IPE was calibrated at items, subscales and overall scale levels and it was realized that IPE belonged to “Non-empowered” category at all levels of analysis. Significant - albeit weak- negative and positive relationships were respectively discerned between overall HCEQ score and age; and literacy. No significant associations were detected between overall HCRQ score and gender, marital state, department, employment status, rural/urban residence, and dwelling outside/inside Alexandria. Findings of the present study uncovered the worth of educating patients and training physicians about the import of IPE.


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