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The signing author(s) (and, in Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis among elementary school students in Jalalabad, Afghanistan https://gnpublication.org/index.php/bp/article/view/1100 <p>Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis among elementary school students in Jalalabad, Afghanistan.</p> <p>Background: nocturnal enuresis (bed wetting) refers to inability to control urination during sleep which is common issue in children above 5 years of age. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in elementary schools of Jalalabad.</p> <p>Methods: This cross sectional study conducted from 4th/April/2016 to 9th/April/2017 in elementary schools of Jalalabad city. 1400 questionnaire were distributed to students of two elementary schools (one governmental, one private). These questionnaire were answered by their parents.</p> <p>Results: from the data received 1339 questionnaire were analyzed. Mean age was 9.9 (SD=2,3), CI (9.8 – 10.5). Overall prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in elementary schools of Jalalabad was 19%. Means that out of 1339 students 254 had nocturnal enuresis. Additionally 15/6% had UTI and 34% had both UTI and enuresis. Showing UTI as potential cause of enuresis. In relation to gender the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (22.4%) was higher compared with that in the girls (14%). P&lt;0.05</p> <p>Conclusion: Our results with enuresis prevalence were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found that afghan families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children.</p> Assistant Professo Dr. Ghazi Jamal Abdul Nasir Assistant Professor Dr. Sayed Ahmad Shah Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal For Research In Biology & Pharmacy (ISSN: 2208-2093) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 5 9 01 10 Investigated Lateral Sphincterotomy versus 2% Diltiazem Gel Local Application in the Treatment of Chronic Fissure in ANO https://gnpublication.org/index.php/bp/article/view/1101 <p>An anal fissure is a split in the anoderm over the hypertrophied band of internal sphincter at the anal verge fissure is almost always located close to the midline of the anal canal; in men, 95% are near the posterior midline and 5% near the anterior midline, whereas in women, about 80% will be located posteriorly and 20% anteriorly.</p> <p>In this study we compare symptomatic relief, healing and side effects of topical 2% Diltiazem gel and lateral internal sphincterotomy in the treatment of chronic fissure in ANO.&nbsp;</p> <p>In this prospective trial, 58 surgical out patients and/or admitted patients with chronic fissure in ANO was randomly divided into Group 1 (Diltiazem gel) and Group 2 (internal sphincterotomy) with 25 patients in each Group. Patients were followed up at weekly intervals for six consecutive weeks and biweekly for subsequent 3 months.</p> <p>Fissure was completely healed in 85.45% of patients in Group 1 and in 96.60% in Group 2. The mean duration required for healing of fissure was 5.02 weeks in Group 1 and 3.8 weeks in Group 2. 65.00% patients were free from pain in Group 1 whereas 70.98 % patients were free from pain in Group 2. No patient had any side effects in either group.</p> Associated Professor Dr Barat Gul Meherzai Associated Professor Dr Gulaqa Sadat Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal For Research In Biology & Pharmacy (ISSN: 2208-2093) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 5 9 11 15 Heparin sodium uses in children's cataract surgery https://gnpublication.org/index.php/bp/article/view/1102 <p>After cataract extraction of the child's eye, the vision is reversed (decreases), because after surgery Fibrin is found in anterior chamber, for prevention of formation fibrin we use heparin and does not decrease the vision. The aim of this research is to study of use and non-use of heparin in children eye surgery, differentially. This is case control study conducted on sartan 1397 to jawza 1398 within one year on 30 patients in University Teaching Hospital Eye ward.</p> <p>In group A, there were 14 eyes that used heparin sodium in surgery and in group B there were 16 eyes that had surgery with no heparin sodium uses. Statistical analysis of the study revealed that the odds ratio is 7.714 that is seven times greater use of heparin with improvement and better result. the p valve is 0.0256 which is very close to the fact and Z statistic is 2.233.</p> <p>In research group A in which we used heparin in cataract surgery 2 eyes 14, 28% had a posterior capsule density, one patient had a posterior synechia that gave 7, 14%, and two patients who had hyphaemia that gave 14,28%,that mean anterior chamber had blood . In B group three eyes pupil completely close mean had occulosive pupil 18, 75%.</p> <p>In the study 14 female gender 46, 66% and 16 male genders 53, 33 % were in observation. And research has shown that the use of heparin to prevent the complications of cataract surgery in children is most likely having good result.</p> Assistant professor Dr Abdul Basir Safi Teaching assistant Dr Ibrarullah Rahimi Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal For Research In Biology & Pharmacy (ISSN: 2208-2093) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 5 9 16 23 Study on Related Factors of Giardiasis in Nangarhar https://gnpublication.org/index.php/bp/article/view/1103 <p>Giardia lamblia is the leading cause of water born diarrhea in developing countries that can increase the morbidity and mortality of children. Due to that fact, this study aims to investigate the common risk factors for mentioned issue in Nangarhar province.</p> <p>A descriptive study was conducted from May 2018 to October 2018 through properly designed and self-administered questionnaires on 152(89male and 63 Female) patients with 1-18 years' age in Nangarhar Teaching Hospital and Nangarhar Regional Hospital Central Laboratory, located in Jalalabad city. After stool exam, positive individuals were interviewed, and registered with their lab records in questionnaires. Data were collected, organized and analyzed using SPSS Statistics 20(IBM, USA).</p> <p>The median age for over all 152 included participants were 10(range 1-18) that 57.9% were males, children with 1.5-year age had the lowest incidence which was 0.7% and children of 12 years were the highest parasite incidence in the study (11.8%). 65.1% participants were from Jalalabad city. Majority of them were unmarried and illiterates. Highest percentage of them had not a job and many of them had a moderate economic status. 35.5% of the participants had animals in their home including cows, cats, sheep and dogs. 41.6% had used the dairy products in their daily routine meals.15.8percentage of them had other parasites in their stool samples which were H Nana, Entamoeba histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoidus.</p> <p>&nbsp;According to the study results, G lamblia is the prevalent infection in Nangarhar province, which increases with age. This parasite has a high incidence in school age Children. Therefore, serious measures are required to educate the population properly for their social and environmental Hygiene.</p> Teaching Assistant Dr. Shah Agha Salehi Teaching Assistant Dr. Ahmadgul Azamee Assistant professor Dr. Mohammad Azim azimee Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal For Research In Biology & Pharmacy (ISSN: 2208-2093) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 5 9 24 33 Factors Affecting Acne https://gnpublication.org/index.php/bp/article/view/1104 <p>Acne vulgaris is a common chronic skin disease involving blockage and /or inflammation of&nbsp; pilosevaceous unit(hair follicles and their accompanying sebaceous gland)Acne can present as non-inflammatory lesions, inflammatory lesions, or a mixture of both, affecting mostly the face but also the back and chest</p> <p>We studied the pattern of Acne in 110 patients with the sex ratio of 50 %( 55) male and 50 %( 55) female. &nbsp;The age ranged from 13-47 years, the study design was descriptive case series, the study was carried out in Nangarhar University Teaching Hospital and clinics from November 2018 to June 2019 and assessed patients’ perceptions of factors having effect on their acne condition. Family history of acne was positive in 61% of patients, sweating, hot weather and emotional stress were known as aggravating factors by both sexes and premenstrual factors and cosmetics were confined to women. certain foods such as nuts , chocolate ,egg ,cakes and biscuits, spices and tea were known as exacerbator factors , finally we concluded that common aggravating factors are genetic ,nuts ,oily food, chocolate, spice ,cosmetic material , hot weather, milk, yogurt, tea and coffee and bettering factors are&nbsp; vegetables and fruits, and the acne is the disease of adolescence specially affecting those aging 13-20 year. The moderate type of acne was the most common type while the sever type was the less common type.</p> Professor Dr. Khalil Ahmad Behsoodwal Teaching Assistant Dr. Qudratullah Rahimee Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal For Research In Biology & Pharmacy (ISSN: 2208-2093) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 5 9 34 40