International Journal For Research In Biology & Pharmacy (ISSN: 2208-2093) 2019-06-30T12:47:21+00:00 Virender Singh Open Journal Systems <p>Green Publication provides high quality research journals with monthly frequency, open access and double blind peer-reviewed. Green Publication providing a platform for the researchers, academicians, professional, practitioners and students to impart and share knowledge in the form of high quality empirical and theoretical research papers, case studies, literature reviews and book reviews.<br><span style="font-size: 1.5em;"><strong> <span style="color: black; text-shadow: #048204 0px 0px 3px;">Current Impact Factor: 2.804</span></strong></span></p> An Assessment of Quality of Life in Libyan Patients with Bronchial asthma: a Clinical Benefit in using most Desirable Inhaler Techniques 2019-06-30T12:47:20+00:00 Fathi Mohamed Sherif Walid Y. Tarsin Nabila A. Hshad Ishraq Elshamli Henry Chrystyn <p>Inhaled drug therapy remains the treatment option of choice for majority of patients with asthma. Asthma is a major chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract. This study is designed to evaluate if the use of 2Tone helps patients maintain the correct inhalation technique after training and can improve their quality of life using AQLQ (Asthma quality of life questionnaire) and JMI (Jones morbidity index) questionnaires. AQLQ is a disease-specific health related quality of life tool which has good measurement properties and valid as an evaluative and a discriminative instrument. JMI is used as a simple and practical tool for asthma evaluation morbidity. 125 Libyan asthmatic patients from respiratory department outpatient of medical center (Tripoli) were included. Patients were divided into two groups; intervention and control. The intervention group was divided into those who were verbally trained about the MDI inhalation flow rate technique named verbal group (VT) and those called the 2Tone group (2T). Patients in the 2T group received the same verbal training as the VT group and were given 2Tone Trainer. The second visit for all patients was held six weeks later and each patient was assessed in the same manner as on the first visit. The patient was asked to fill in a self-administered AQLQ and answer questions from JMI. All patients in control group at both visits were inhaling at flow rate &lt; 90 L/min with mean IFR of 66 L/min. Patients mean IFR in VT and 2T groups were less than 90 L/min at visit 2. Comparison of patient’s total AQLQ scores between visits shows no patients in group control group recorded statistical difference. In contrast, 17 patients (48.6%) in VT group and 30 patients (83.3%) in the 2T group recorded significant difference in AQLQ score between visits. Comparisons in morbidity between groups at visits shown that about half of patients in 2T group and 20% of patients in VT group were reduced in the severity category after counselling whereas in control group. There was almost no statistical different between visits. No difference between the patient’s perceptions of symptom control at visit 1 between the groups was observed but a significant difference at visit 2 was noted. Comparison between visits within each group showed that in 2T group patients’ perception of their asthma symptoms improved but did not change in the other two groups. A correlation was very strong between juniper questionnaire and JMI as studied by counselling group with significant association. This study shows that a high correlation between juniper questionnaire and JMI by counselling. This may be a reflection to use JMI as a quick tool to evaluate asthmatic patients to save time and increase patient compliance.</p> 2019-06-30T12:22:28+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal For Research In Biology & Pharmacy (ISSN: 2208-2093) Acne Vulgaris: Measures and Miseries 2019-06-30T12:47:21+00:00 AK Mohiuddin <p>Acne, also known as acne vulgaris (AV), is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin. It is characterized by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring. An intact stratum corneum and barrier, normal natural moisturizing factor and hyaluronic acid levels, normal Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expression (localized at the basal lateral membranes of collecting duct cells in the kidney), and balanced sebum secretion are qualities of the skin that fall in the middle of the oily–dry spectrum. Patients rarely, if ever, complain about reduced sebum production, but elevated sebum production, yielding oily skin that can be a precursor to acne, is a common complaint. Several factors are known to influence sebum production. AV is mostly triggered by <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em> in adolescence, under the influence of normal circulating dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). It is a very common skin disorder which can present with inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions chiefly on the face but can also occur on the upper arms, trunk, and back. Age, in particular, has a significant and well-known impact, as sebum levels are usually low in childhood, rise in the middle-to-late teen years, and remain stable into the seventh and eighth decades until endogenous androgen synthesis dwindles. Sebum, the oily secretion of the sebaceous glands containing wax esters, sterol esters, cholesterol, di- and triglycerides, and squalene, imparts an oily quality to the skin and is well known to play an important role in acne development. Acne can't be prevented or cured, but it can be treated effectively. The pimples and bumps heal slowly, and when one begins to go away, others seem to crop up. Depending on its severity, acne can cause emotional distress and scar the skin. Acne may cause scarring of the skin, but generally causes no long-term health problems. In self-body image, some parts of the body including face play an important role. Existence of even a minor lesion in this part may be unpleasant for the patient and seems large. This image can cause mental disorders including depression and anxiety, low self-esteem, and decrease in social relationships. However, high levels of anxiety and depression in patients with facial acne are not related to oxidative stress, according to a study published online in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology.</p> 2019-06-30T12:41:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal For Research In Biology & Pharmacy (ISSN: 2208-2093) Skin Lightening & Management of Hyperpigmentation 2019-06-30T12:47:21+00:00 AK Mohiuddin <p>Skin color, along with hair and eye color, is genetically determined by the amount of melanin found in the top layers of skin. Its varied presence – which accounts for different skin colors – is linked to a population's historic levels of sun exposure. Skin-lightening is just one of the multiple options for augmenting the skin’s surface appearance, including but not limited to tanning, scarification, makeup, tattooing, face lifts, nose jobs, botox, lip extensions, and piercings. Skin-bleaching practices, such as using skin creams and soaps to achieve a lighter skin tone, are common throughout the world and are triggered by cosmetic reasons that oftentimes have deep historical, economic, sociocultural, and psychosocial roots. The cosmetics industry has traditionally relied on convincing people that they are incomplete without a particular product. Yet, unlike makeup or fake tan, skin-whitening creams base beauty on a racial hierarchy, fueling intolerance and causing serious social harm. Lighter and fairer skin is something that everyone craves for, and celebrities play a massive part in paving the way. Just like ladies, men also aspire to get immaculate, glowing and healthy-looking skin to accentuate their personality and overall looks. It's for everyone to understand that men really feel shy to discuss the skincare routines as they feel it's all-girl stuff. But there is no denying that even boys need to uplift and improve their skin texture to feel good. Studies have documented the use of skin fairness products, sometimes referred to as “skin whitening products,” “skin bleaching products,” “depigmenting agents,” in Africa, Europe, North America, and Asia, with prevalence of use ranging from 30 to 80% among various community samples. &nbsp;Skin fairness products include whitening and skin-lightening creams, face washes, deodorants, and lotions. These agents act in different ways to lighten skin, but generally work by suppressing the production of melanin, the pigment which gives human skin its color. While traditionally a female practice, use has become more popular also among men in recent years. These agents selectively target hyperplastic melanocytes and inhibit key regulatory steps in melanin synthesis. Historically marketed to women, companies have recently expanded their offerings to include products designed and marketed specifically for men. Advertisements and packaging overtly claim that products will make consumers’ skin fairer and more even-toned, while product names and the use of well-known models and actors in advertisements imply that they will enhance consumers’ cultural capital via improvements in attractiveness, youthfulness, confidence, and success. The relevance of skin fairness products to public health is highlighted by the scope of the industry, the widespread use of these products, and the potential health risks associated with their use. Skin-whitening cosmetics are a multi-billion-dollar industry pushing the idea that beauty equates with white skin and that lightening dark skin is both achievable and preferable.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2019-06-30T12:46:08+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal For Research In Biology & Pharmacy (ISSN: 2208-2093)