• Suliman Zommita Biology
  • Ashraf Soliman
  • Nusret Zencirci Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Biology Bolu Turkey




A member of the wheat family, emmer (Triticum dicoccum) is an annual grass. When initially domesticated in the Near East, emmer was one of the most frequently grown wheats in the ancient world because of its low yield and bristle like appendage. This kind of wheat is known as hulled wheat because it contains hulls or husks that protect the grain. Grains may be freed from their outer husks after the grain has been threshed, although this process is time-consuming and labor-intensive.

Starch wheat, rice wheat, or two-grain spelt are all other names for emmer, a kind of wheat that is high in starch. It was once one of the most precious crops in the world, but until recently, emmer has fallen out of favor. As recently as a few years ago, it was mostly used for cattle in the highlands of Italy, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Russia, and the United States.

For thousands of years, the Egyptians relied on emmer as a healthy food source. In Italy, where it was first grown thousands of years ago, it is still being grown today. Vitamins, minerals, and fiber are all found in emmer. Vegetarians and those wishing to increase their intake of plant-based protein may benefit greatly from the combination of it with beans, which provides a complete protein supply. It may be used to create bread or pasta, as well as an excellent salad grain. It may also be used in soups and as a replacement for rice in recipes like a vegetable curry. Instead of rice, consider using farro. Additionally, there are heritage types such as Turkey Red Wheat, in addition to the three grains known as farro (einkorn, spelt, and emmer). Each type has a similar nutritional profile and a few distinct taste characteristics. Micronutrients such as minerals and antioxidants are more abundant in ancient grains such as emmer than in current wheat varieties. All ancient and heritage wheats include gluten, though. Proteins present in grains are combined to form gluten. However, emmer is not a smart option for anybody with gluten sensitivities, regardless of whether or not they also react to the gluten in ancient grains. Celiac disease sufferers should steer clear of them at all costs.

Especially in recent years, the tendency towards spelt (einkorn, emmer, and spelt) and diet products and organic foods produced from these wheats has increased rapidly throughout the world. Among the reasons for this increased interest are the high protein content of these species, their richness in microelements, amino acids, and vitamins. Although einkorn and emmer cultivation, which has a deep historical background, is still carried out in very few areas, emmer wheat has a high genetic diversity in terms of these species. With the excavations carried out to date, it has been revealed that the region where these species originate is the "Fertile Crescent" region, which is also within the borders of Turkey.


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How to Cite

Zommita, S., Soliman, A. ., & Zencirci, N. . (2022). HISTORY AND EVALUATION OF EMMER WHEAT. International Journal For Research In Agricultural And Food Science, 8(4), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.53555/gafs.v8i4.2091